The oral administration of mofezolac, [3,4-di(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-isoxazolyl]acetic acid, resulted in the suppression of writhing induced by the intraperitoneal injection of phenyl- p -benzoquinone (phenylquinone, PQ) in mice. The analgesic activity of mofezolac was almost as potent as that of indomethacin, and more potent than that of sodium diclofenac, zaltoprofen, NS-398, and etodolac when their 50% effective doses were compared. The in vitro inhibitory activity of mofezolac against ovine cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 was also more potent than that of any other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) tested, whereas the activity of mofezolac against COX-2 was relatively weak. A Western analysis revealed COX-1 to be constitutively expressed, whereas COX-2 was hardly expressed until 30 min after the PQ-injection in the peritoneal cells. Because the writhing terminated within 30 min after PQ-injection, the prostaglandins involved in the induction of writhing seem to be derived from COX-1. These data thus indicate that potent analgesic activity of mofezolac against the present model to be more closely related to its potent inhibitory activity against COX-1 but not against COX-2.