Antileukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids

An antileukotriene is a drug which functions as a leukotriene -related enzyme inhibitor ( arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase ) or leukotriene receptor antagonist ( cysteinyl leukotriene receptors ) and consequently opposes the function of these inflammatory mediators; leukotrienes are produced by the immune system and serve to promote bronchoconstriction , inflammation, microvascular permeability, and mucus secretion in asthma and COPD . [1] Leukotriene receptor antagonists are sometimes colloquially referred to as leukasts .

There was no statistically significant advantage when adding intravenous aminophylline with respect to hospital admissions ( OR ; 95% CI to ; 6 studies; n = 315). In 2000 it was found that there was no statistically significant effect of aminophylline on airflow outcomes at any time period; the addition of two trials in 2012 has not challenged this conclusion. People treated with aminophylline and beta 2 -agonists had similar peak expiratory flow (PEF) values compared to those treated with beta 2 -agonists alone at 12 h ( MD L/min; 95% CI - to L/min) or ( MD -% predicted; 95% CI -% to % predicted) and 24 h ( MD L/min; 95% CI - to L/min). Two subgroup analyses were performed by grouping studies according to mean baseline airflow limitation (11 studies) and the use of any corticosteroids (nine studies). There was no relationship between baseline airflow limitation or the use of corticosteroids on the effect of aminophylline. Aminophylline-treated patients reported more palpitations/arrhythmias ( OR ; 95% CI to ; 6 studies; n = 249) and vomiting ( OR ; 95% CI to ; 7 studies; n = 321); however, no significant difference was found in tremor ( OR ; 95% CI to ; 5 studies; n = 249).

Fexofenadine hydrochloride, a second-generation antihistamine, is the pharmacological metabolite of terfenadine and a potent and selective antagonist of peripheral H 1 -receptors. It has an early onset of action as compared to levocetirizine, and causes a significantly higher reduction in the wheal size after 3 to 6 hours when compared to desloratadine. Fexofenadine is as effective as the popular antihistamine, cetirizine, but it lacks the sedating effects associated with cetirizine. This is because of its inability to cross the blood–brain barrier. Fexofenadine is also superior to loratadine in improving nasal congestion, ocular symptoms and the quality of life for patients with AR.

Gutworms and similar parasites are present in untreated drinking water in developing countries, and were present in the water of developed countries until the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies. [65] Recent research has shown that some common parasites , such as intestinal worms (., hookworms ), secrete chemicals into the gut wall (and, hence, the bloodstream) that suppress the immune system and prevent the body from attacking the parasite. [66] This gives rise to a new slant on the hygiene hypothesis theory—that co-evolution of humans and parasites has led to an immune system that functions correctly only in the presence of the parasites. Without them, the immune system becomes unbalanced and oversensitive. [67] In particular, research suggests that allergies may coincide with the delayed establishment of gut flora in infants . [68] However, the research to support this theory is conflicting, with some studies performed in China and Ethiopia showing an increase in allergy in people infected with intestinal worms. [62] Clinical trials have been initiated to test the effectiveness of certain worms in treating some allergies. [69] It may be that the term 'parasite' could turn out to be inappropriate, and in fact a hitherto unsuspected symbiosis is at work. [69] For more information on this topic, see Helminthic therapy .

Churg-Strauss syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
vasculitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
erythema multiforme / Delayed / Incidence not known
Stevens-Johnson syndrome / Delayed / Incidence not known
toxic epidermal necrolysis / Delayed / Incidence not known
pancreatitis / Delayed / Incidence not known
erythema nodosum / Delayed / Incidence not known
anaphylactoid reactions / Rapid / Incidence not known
angioedema / Rapid / Incidence not known
suicidal ideation / Delayed / Incidence not known
seizures / Delayed / Incidence not known

Antileukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids

antileukotriene agents compared to inhaled corticosteroids

Gutworms and similar parasites are present in untreated drinking water in developing countries, and were present in the water of developed countries until the routine chlorination and purification of drinking water supplies. [65] Recent research has shown that some common parasites , such as intestinal worms (., hookworms ), secrete chemicals into the gut wall (and, hence, the bloodstream) that suppress the immune system and prevent the body from attacking the parasite. [66] This gives rise to a new slant on the hygiene hypothesis theory—that co-evolution of humans and parasites has led to an immune system that functions correctly only in the presence of the parasites. Without them, the immune system becomes unbalanced and oversensitive. [67] In particular, research suggests that allergies may coincide with the delayed establishment of gut flora in infants . [68] However, the research to support this theory is conflicting, with some studies performed in China and Ethiopia showing an increase in allergy in people infected with intestinal worms. [62] Clinical trials have been initiated to test the effectiveness of certain worms in treating some allergies. [69] It may be that the term 'parasite' could turn out to be inappropriate, and in fact a hitherto unsuspected symbiosis is at work. [69] For more information on this topic, see Helminthic therapy .

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