Cyclooxygenase 2 selective nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs and the risk of ischemic stroke

COX-2 expression was found in human idiopathic epiretinal membranes. [32] Cyclooxygenases blocking by lornoxicam in acute stage of inflammation reduced the frequency of membrane formation by 43% in the dispase model of PVR and by 31% in the concanavalin one. Lornoxicam not only normalized the expression of cyclooxygenases in both models of PVR, but also neutralized the changes of the retina and the choroid thickness caused by the injection of pro-inflammatory agents. These facts underline the importance of cyclooxygenases and prostaglandins in the development of PVR. [33]

A number of arguments counted against the COX-3 hypothesis: COX-2-selective inhibitors react weakly with the COX-3 enzymatic site, because the site is identical to that in COX-1, but they are as good at reducing fever as older NSAIDs. The fever response has also been clearly associated with a rapid induction of COX-2 expression and an associated increase in prostaglandin E2 production, with no role for COX-1 or a COX-1 gene product (., COX-3). Finally, the sites of COX-3 expression do not appear to fit in well with those sites associated with fever, and the protein should be present within the hypothalamus rather than the cerebral cortex . All these considerations appeared to argue against COX-3 being the site of the antipyretic actions of NSAIDs and COX-2-selective agents. However, the results could be read as showing that paracetamol acts at a different site than the other NSAIDs and that more than one COX isoform contribute to the fever response.

Clinical field studies were conducted in 297 dogs of different breeds undergoing orthopedic or soft tissue surgery. Dogs were administered 2 mg/lb of Carprofen caplets two hours prior to surgery then once daily, as needed for 2 days (soft tissue surgery) or 3 days (orthopedic surgery). Carprofen was well tolerated when used in conjunction with a variety of anesthetic-related drugs. The type and severity of abnormal health observations in Carprofen- and placebo-treated animals were approximately equal and few in number (see Adverse Reactions ). The most frequent abnormal health observation was vomiting and was observed at approximately the same frequency in Carprofen- and placebo-treated animals. Changes in clinicopathologic indices of hematopoetic, renal, hepatic, and clotting function were not clinically significant. The mean post-treatment serum ALT values were IU and IU less than pre-treatment values for dogs receiving Carprofen and placebo, respectively. The mean post-treatment AST values were IU less for dogs receiving Carprofen and IU greater for dogs receiving placebo.

Cyclooxygenase 2 selective nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs and the risk of ischemic stroke

cyclooxygenase 2 selective nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs and the risk of ischemic stroke

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