The approval of Cresemba to treat invasive aspergillosis was based on a clinical trial involving 516 participants randomly assigned to receive either Cresemba or voriconazole, another drug approved to treat invasive aspergillosis. Cresemba’s approval to treat invasive mucormycosis was based on a single-arm clinical trial involving 37 participants treated with Cresemba and compared with the natural disease progression associated with untreated mucormycosis. Both studies showed Cresemba was safe and effective in treating these serious fungal infections.
Primary narcotics trafficking routes out of Afghanistan are through Iran to Turkey and Western Europe; through Pakistan to Africa, Asia, the Middle East, China, and Iran; and through Central Asia to the Russian Federation. Traffickers do everything they can to increase their own profits while making it easier for farmers to supply them with raw opium gum. In some cases traffickers provide loans to farmers then purchase the raw opium directly from them, maximizing trafficker profits while eliminating the need for the farmer to transport the opium to market. In many provinces, local warlords control opium markets as well as the illicit arms trade and other criminal activities. Traders operate in the markets with little fear of legal consequences and pay remittances directly to corrupt officials and insurgent groups. Drug laboratories within Afghanistan process a large portion of the country's raw opium into heroin and morphine base. Markets and processing facilities are often clustered in areas that border Iran, Pakistan, and Tajikistan. The USG and the international community are focused on developing GIRoA’s capacity to detect, interdict, classify, and confiscate narcotic drugs and illicit precursor chemicals at border crossing points and unpatrolled frontiers between borders.