As mentioned earlier, optic disc edema is always present in the acute phase of NAION (the reason will be discussed in the section under Pathophysiology) and comes in two varieties, diffuse or segmental. Segmental (typically altitudinal) is more common but it does not consistently correspond to the accompanying area of visual field loss 15. The edema is typically hyperemic and rarely pallid. Pallid edema is common in AAION and should alert the clinician to the possibility of giant cell arteritis. Peripapillary splinter hemorrhages are seen in nearly three-quarters of patients 12 and its presence can sometimes help to differentiate NAION from optic neuritis since they will be present in 5-15% of patients with optic neuritis 16, 17. Retinal exudates are uncommon but both hard and soft exudates were reported in up to 7% of patients in the IONDT 12 and the retinal arterioles can be focally narrowed in the peripapillary region in two-thirds of patients 18.