Diabetes results from inadequate levels of insulin. Type I diabetes is characterized by inadequate levels of insulin secretion, often due to a genetic cause. Type II usually develops in adults from both genetic and environmental causes. Loss of response of targets to insulin rather than lack of insulin causes this type of diabetes. Diabetes causes impairment in the functioning of the eyes, circulatory system, nervous system, and failure of the kidneys. Diabetes is the second leading cause of blindness in the US. Treatments involve daily injections of insulin, monitoring of blood glucose levels and a controlled diet.
The Oxandrolone hormone does not carry any estrogenic related side effects. It does not aromatize and cannot lead to gynecomastia or water retention due to increases in estrogen levels. It further carries no progestin related activity, which again supports no estrogenic related side effects. Due to water retention being impossible with this steroid, this will decrease the risk of high blood pressure. Excess water retention can promote high blood pressure. Some steroids that do not aromatize can lead to high blood pressure, such as Trenbolone , but Anavar is rarely associated with this trait.
Removal of the parathyroid glands in mammals causes a fall in the level of calcium in the blood plasma, which, if sufficiently severe, is accompanied by convulsions and other symptoms resulting from increased excitability of the motor nerves. These symptoms can be corrected by injection of appropriate preparations of parathyroid glands. The activity of the glands, like that of the ultimobranchial tissue, is regulated by negative feedback; ., lowering of the plasma calcium level increases the output of parathormone (but decreases the output of calcitonin). The hypercalcemic effect (., increase in level of blood calcium) of the hormone depends largely upon its action on bone, since it promotes the transfer of calcium from this tissue into the plasma, probably by a direct action on the active bone-forming cells ( osteocytes ). In addition, however, parathormone promotes the formation of new bone tissue, and thus also increases its metabolic activity and the turnover of its structural material. Other effects of parathormone, at least in part, contribute to the elevation of plasma calcium; ., PTH increases both the absorption of calcium by the intestine and its resorption by the kidney tubule. Since, however, the hypercalcemia induced by the hormone results in more of it passing into the kidney tubule, the net result may be increased excretion of calcium despite the increased resorption. Other actions of the hormone, less easy to relate to its well-defined influence upon calcium metabolism, include a regulatory influence upon the level of magnesium in blood plasma and upon the rate of removal of phosphate from urine.