Histamine from enterochromaffin-like cells may well be the primary modulator, but the magnitude of the stimulus appears to result from a complex additive or multiplicative interaction of signals of each type. For example, the low amounts of histamine released constantly from mast cells in the gastric mucosa only weakly stimulate acid secretion, and similarly for low levels of gastrin or acetylcholine. However, when low levels of each are present, acid secretion is strongly forced. Additionally, pharmacologic antagonists of each of these molecules can block acid secretion.
There are at least four leukotriene receptors. Two receptors have been characterized that bind LTB 4 called BLT 1 and BLT 2 and two receptors that bind the peptidoleukotrienes (cysteinyl leukotrienes) called CysLT1 and CysLT2. The BLT 1 receptor is encoded by the LTB4R gene located on chromosome –q12 and is composed of 3 exons that generates two variant mRNAs that both encode a protein of 352 amino acids. The BLT 2 receptor is encoded by the LTB4R2 gene which is located on chromosome 14q12 and is composed of 2 exons generate two variant mRNAs that both encode a protein of 358 amino acids. The CysLT1 receptor is encoded by the CYSLTR1 gene located on the X chromosome (–) and is composed of 5 exons that generates four variant mRNAs, each of which encode the same 337 amino acid protein. The CysLT2 receptor is encoded by the CYSLTR2 gene located on chromosome and contains a single exon encoding a protein of 346 amino acids.
In most cases, we find that replacement hormones are not needed, provided a complete nutritional program is followed. This program should include specific vitamins and minerals as indicated by the mineral analysis. Thyroid glandular substance is also helpful for many patients. This freeze-dried thyroid preparation may contain nutrient substances as yet not isolated, but which nevertheless assist in the regeneration of the patient's own thyroid tissue. A complete nutrition and lifestyle program must also address toxic metals, electrolyte imbalances, diet and lifestyle.